About water

What does a water pipe bring to us?

«Worked still slaves to ancient Rome» a water pipe, - the greatest achievement of a civilization which continues to serve us and today, having turned to big cities in the difficult and branched out networks. It is natural, that for their maintenance require considerable efforts and facilities. At lack of facilities waterways of city, having lived up to rather respectable age, fairly decay: pipes grow with every possible adjournment; from corrosion the walls of pipes burst periodically leaving us without water. And though at our municipal stations water is cleared not worse, than in Paris or other cities of the developed countries, but while water will reach apartments it has time "to be enriched" again with the harmful impurity picked up in pipes. So-called «secondary pollution» leads to that the water flowing from the crane, without additional clearing is not suitable not only for drink or the use in food, but also for economic needs.

Insoluble impurity - sand, a rust and a deposit which source can be and poor-quality corrosion pipes including in your apartment, and the building dust which has remained after repair work somewhere on a water pipe, and other factors. Among the insoluble impurity most dangerous to a human body which can contain in potable water, salts of heavy metals take a special place. Sometimes it seems, that their concentration in water is small but if to use drinking water and cooking day by day years, heavy metals have property to collect in bodies and fabrics, and their concentration in a human body can achieve such value when fatal influence on health to not avoid. A source of heavy metals in water can be and the non-standard poor-quality solder applied at cooking of pipes, copper pipes, and also adapters, cranes, latches and other armature executed from nonferrous metals.

You there are that you drink!

As is known, the human body on 80 % consists of water, therefore it is no wonder, that our health and state of health directly depends on quality of water consumed by us. But, as it is paradoxical, we do not know taste of pure water. And as it is paradoxical, the concept «tasty spring water» for a long time is not so equivalent to concept «pure and useful water». In fact water - universal solvent, therefore it contains substances in different quantities which have met on its way. For this reason, water from different places differs to taste. And only clearing at a molecular level, as is carried out in filters with use of a thin-film membrane, can release water from every possible impurity. Through the times of a membrane having the size 0,0001 micron, can pass only molecules of water and oxygen. And under the statement of people who has already got the membrane filter, the water which has last through it- with transparent bubbles on walls of a vessel from a saturation oxygen - is so tasty that to drink it would be desirable constantly, and not just during those moments when thirst overcomes.

And, as they say, on health: under the statement of physicians, if you drink more waters, the organism (provided that water does not pollute it) is better cleared. Therefore, using of such water you don’t to harm a health, but also can improve it.

The highest level of clearing - systems of the reverse osmosis.

By a principle of work membrane systems are reverse osmosis. The phenomenon of osmosis (alignment of concentration of the solutions divided by partially permeable membrane) underlies a metabolism of all alive organisms. For example, the lining of a shell of an egg is a natural membrane, through it pass molecules of oxygen, but are late contaminations. Walls of cells of plants, animals and the person represent a natural membrane which is partially permeable as it freely passes molecules of water, but not molecules of other substances. When roots of plants absorb water, walls of their cells form a natural osmotic membrane which passes molecules of water and tears away the majority of impurity. Grasses and flowers stand vertically only due to so-called osmotic pressure. Therefore at lack of water they look faded and languid. Filtering ability of a natural membrane is unique, it separates substances from water at a molecular level and it allows any alive organism to exist.

Application of membranes for branch of one components of a solution from others has very old history ascending to Aristotle, for the first time found out, that sea water is freshened, if it pass through walls of a wax vessel. Studying of this phenomenon and others membrane processes has begun much later, in the beginning of XVIII century when Reomyur used for the scientific purposes partially permeable membranes of a natural origin. But up to the middle of 20th years of a leaving century all these processes had academic interest, not falling outside the limits laboratories. In 1927 German firm "Sartorius" has received the first samples of artificial membranes. After the Second world war Americans, using German operating time, have adjusted manufacture acetate cellulose and nitro-cellulose membranes. Only in the end 50 - the beginning of 60th years with the beginning of wide manufacture of synthetic polymeric materials there were first scientific works which have laid down about a basis of industrial application of the reverse osmosis. First industrial reverse osmotic systems have appeared only in the beginning of 70th years, therefore it is youngish technology in comparison with the same ionic exchange or adsorption for the activated coals. Nevertheless, in the Western countries reverse osmosis became one of the most economic, universal and reliable methods of water treating who allows to lower concentration of components being water on 96-99 % and practically on 100 % to get rid of microorganisms and viruses.

The device of reverse osmosis systems

The filter working by a principle of reverse osmosis, is arranged simply enough: a basic element, allowing to receive water of a high degree of clearing is as it was written above, a thin-film membrane. If to explain absolutely simply, it represents a certain similarity of a grid which size of cells we shall compare to the size of a molecule of water. Certainly, through such "grid" can pass molecules of water, or substance, which size of molecules it is even less - the oxygen dissolved in water, hydrogen, etc. Therefore from water the dissolved components, and also salts of heavy metals, organic impurity and bacteria leave practically all. Well and all other constructive elements reverse osmosis systems are called to provide only favorable conditions for work of such membrane.

Imagine how quickly must begin to the beat dirt such little pores of membrane, if ordinary plumbing water will act on it! For that it does not happen, before a membrane are installed prefilter - some steps of preliminary clearing. Among them necessarily there is a step of clearing of the mechanical pollution, detaining suspensions, sand and insoluble impurity with the size of particles more 5mkm. One more step provides chemical clearing of chlorine, chlorine-containing connections, pesticides, organic chemistry, etc. by means of sorption at the activated coal. Depending on quality of initial water the quantity of steps in prefilter can be increased.

During work, gradually before a membrane the filtered salts and various impurity because it can get littered and leave off to work. For constant plum of these "waste", along a membrane is created the compulsory stream of the water, which are washing off concentrated pollution in drainage. That productivity and service life of a membrane increases.

For achievement of normal productivity of a membrane, on it should act water under pressure of 3,5 -4 atmospheres. Such pressure is usual business for the majority of municipal waterpipes in large cities. At pressure of water less than 2-2,5 atmospheres (including at a fence of water from capacity without pressure) are necessary the pump for pressure increase.

If the cleared water is consumed non-uniformly, and periodically its charge can increase, the system of clearing is usually supplemented with capacity for storage of pure water. More expensive way is sometimes applied - systems are equipped essentially with more powerful pump and more productive membrane.

Filtering ability of system of the rerurn osmos is really unique. Any of the filters working by other principle - mechanical clearing, adsorption or an ionic exchange - cannot provide a similar degree of clearing. It is very important to understand what even best of "simple" household filters do not delete or far not completely delete from water pesticides, bacteria and others cancerogenic chlorine of organic connections, and also heavy metals and nukleid.

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